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December 21, 2011

Yummy Diabetic Dog Treats

1/2 cup whole wheat flour
2 eggs
1 1/2 pounds beef liver, cut into pieces

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Line a 10x15 inch jellyroll pan with parchment paper.
Place the liver into a food processor. Pulse until finely chopped. If you have room, add the flour and eggs, and process until smooth. Otherwise, transfer to a bowl, and stir in the flour and eggs using a wooden spoon. Spread evenly in the prepared pan.
Bake for 15 minutes in the preheated oven, or until the center is firm. Cool, and cut into squares using a pizza cutter. The treats will have a consistency similar to a sponge. Store in a sealed container in the refrigerator.

Nutritional Information
Amount Per Serving  Calories: 35 | Total Fat: 1g | Cholesterol: 64mg


Ho, Ho, Ho, Dog Treats


1 cup rolled oats
1 tablespoon white sugar
1 teaspoon brown sugar
1 cube beef bouillon, crumbled
1 tablespoon poultry seasoning
1 tablespoon mild paprika
3/4 cup cornmeal
2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1 cup boiling water
1/3 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup milk
1 egg

Preheat the oven to 325 degrees F (165 degrees C). Grease cookie sheets.
In a large bowl, stir together the oats, white sugar, brown sugar, beef bouillon, poultry seasoning, paprika, cornmeal and flour. In a separate bowl, stir together the butter and hot water until butter melts, then stir in the milk and egg. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients, and pour in the wet ingredients. Mix until well blended. The dough will be stiff. If it is too stiff, add a bit more water. If it is too sticky, add more flour.

On a lightly floured surface, knead the dough for a few turns. Roll out to 1/4 to 1/2 inch thickness, and cut into squares or into desired shapes using cookie cutters. Place treats about 1 inch apart on the prepared cookie sheets.

Bake for 30 to 35 minutes in the preheated oven, until lightly browned and firm. Let cool for 10 or 15 minutes. When completely cool, store in an airtight container at room temperature.


Christmas Carob Mint Dog Cookies

1 cup flour
1 cup baking mix (Bisquick or Jiffy)
5 drops mint flavoring, ¼ cup milk
2 tablespoons margarine
1 egg
1 teaspoon corn syrup

Mix all ingredients and roll out onto a floured surface to approximately ¼ inch thick. Cut with bone shape or holiday cookie cutters and position on a cookie sheet sprayed with cooking spray. Bake at 350 for 25 to 30 minutes until lightly browned. Cool the dip cookies halfway into melted carob or spoon the carob icing over half of each cookie. Make sure cookies are cooled down before storing, gift wrapping or giving to your pup. Store these treats in a sealed, airtight container for freshness.

**DO NOT substitute chocolate chips, chocolate is toxic to dogs instead go with carob a safe alternative for your barking chocoholic. Carob should be found in your stores baking department.


November 21, 2011

The Golden Retriever

The Golden Retriever, with its intelligence and eager to please attitude, is one of the most popular breeds in the United States according to AKC® registration statistics. The working ability that has made the Golden Retriever such a useful hunting companion also make him an ideal guide, assistance and search and rescue dog. The golden-colored coat is the hallmark of this versatile breed, and can range from light to dark gold.

The Golden Retriever originated in the Scottish Highlands in the late 1800s and was used predominantly for hunting. The breed was developed by Lord Tweedmouth, whose goal was to create a superb retriever suited to the Scottish climate, terrain and available game. He crossed his original "Yellow Retriever" with the Tweed Water Spaniel (now extinct) found on his estate. Later integrations of Irish Setter, Bloodhound, and more Tweed Water Spaniel produced the retriever we know today. 
Right Breed for You?
This active and energetic Sporting breed can adapt to many different living situations but requires daily exercise. His water-repellent double-coat sheds seasonally and needs regular brushing. With his friendly temperament and striking golden color, this breed is both beautiful to look at and a joy to own.

November 20, 2011

The Basset Hound

The Basset Hound are around 1-foot in height at the withers, usually weigh between 35 and 50 lb (16 and 23 kg) with smooth, short-haired coats although a rough haired hound is possible. Although any hound colour is considered acceptable by breed standards, Bassets are generally tricolor (black, tan, and white), open red and white (red spots on white fur), closed red and white (a solid red color with white feet and tails), Honey And White (honey coloured back, light brown spotty nose and legs, light brown tails with white tip) and lemon and white. Some Bassets are also classified as gray or blue; however, this colour is considered rare and undesirable. Basset Hounds have long, downward ears and powerful necks, with loose skin around their heads that forms wrinkles. Their tails are long and tapering and stand upright with a curve. Tails usually have white tips so the dogs are more easily seen when hunting/tracking through large bushes or weeds. The breed is also known for its hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears, help trap the scent of what they are tracking.

The Basset Hound, a large dog with short legs were originally bred to have osteochondrodysplasia, known as dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are surprisingly long and can reach things on table tops that dogs of similar heights cannot. However, because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long and should never be made to swim.

The Basset Hound is seen as a friendly breed toward people and other pets. For this reason they are an excellent pet for children.

Because Bassets are scent hounds, they should always be on a leash when out on walks. Although they are well known to be lazy, they have a tendency to run—especially after prey—so a leash is very important for their safety. Even though Bassets sleep a lot, walks are still necessary.

Bassets are known to be a vocal breed. Bassets might howl or bark when they want something or to suggest that they think something is wrong . They also use a low, murmuring whine to get attention, which sounds to many owners as though their Bassets are "talking." This whine is also used by the hound to beg (for food or treats) and varies in volume depending on the nature of the individual hound and length of time it has been begging.

Hunting with Bassets
The Basset Hound was bred to hunt. Its keen nose and short stature are suited to small-game hunting on foot, although many Bassets have lost their age-old skills. There are a few groups that promote hunting with bassets. The American Hunting Basset Association and the Basset Hound Club of America has been the most active in promoting the use of Bassets for rabbit hunting.

Hunting with Basset Hounds when with an organization such as the American Hunting Basset Association or the Basset Hound Club of America does not involve the killing of any animals. These organizations are merely testing the Basset Hound's skills at tracking/trailing a rabbit's scent. Each organization is different in how it functions. With the AHBA, a group of 4 to 6 hounds (cast) are given one hour to find their own rabbit and judged based upon a standard set of rules while in the BHCA two dogs are paired and then put on a rabbit track and then judged. Typically the BHCA hunting lasts a few minutes per brace, the basset pair. With both organizations, the winning dog in each brace for the BHCA or cast for the AHBA go on to compete against the other winning dogs.

Hunting with Basset Hounds as a pack is common in the Mid-Atlantic States of Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Several private and membership packs exist in these states. Hunting for cotton tails and hare is the quarry of preference. There were a number of Basset Hound packs in England when the hunting of hares (see Beagling) was made illegal by the Hunting Act 2004.
Hunting a hound pack requires a staff which consists of a Huntsman and the Whipper-Ins who are responsible for order and discipline of the pack. A Field Master is in charge of the field (members of the hunt and guests) that follows behind observing the hounds as they work the covert. Most clubs will hunt in traditional attire of a green jacket and brush pants. Recognized clubs offer those members who have supported the pack the opportunity to wear colors on the collar to indicate rank in the club. These packs are typically of English and French hound blood lines with a mix of AKC blood lines in some packs.

The National Beagle Club hosts spring and fall field trials for basset hounds. The competition is held over a 4-day period with participating packs hunting in the traditional manner in braces of up to 1 hour and 15 minutes. The pack size for each competition varies, from 3 to 7 couples.

Because of the extremely long ears of Bassets they are prone to ear disease. If their ears are allowed to dangle on the ground or in food on a daily basis they are capable of developing chronic and potentially fatal ear diseases. Also puppies, if their ears are dangling in their food, might bite their ears accidentally. This can lead to infection if they break the skin. Adult dogs usually don't do this. The only recent mortality and morbidity surveys of Basset Hounds are from the UK: a 1999 longevity survey with a small sample size of 10 deceased dogs and a 2004 UK Kennel Club health survey with a larger sample size of 142 deceased dogs and 226 live dogs. See Mortality and Morbidity below.
In addition to ear problems, basset hounds may also have eye issues. Because of their droopy eyes, the area under the eyeball will collect dirt and become clogged with a mucus. It is best to wipe their eyes every day with a damp cloth. This helps to lessen the build up and eye irritation.

Basset Hounds can be on the lazy side and can become overweight on their own if allowed to. They need plenty of exercise and a good diet. A group of basset hounds is commonly referred to as a "frenzy" of basset hounds.

If you are considering purchasing a Basset, be aware that they shed a lot.

Basset Hounds are also prone to yeast infections in the folds around the mouth, where drool can collect without thoroughly drying out. Wiping the area with a clean, dry towel and applying talcum powder can minimize this risk.

Basset hounds also should not be allowed to jump due to how low they are to the ground. Because of a basset's body build (short stubby legs, low to the ground) if they jump from too high of point they can hurt their hips, injure their spine and break a leg. Some bassets have been euthanized due to such injuries; such injuries can be difficult to heal.

Median longevity of Basset Hounds in the UK is about 11.4 years, which is a typical median longevity for purebred dogs and for breeds similar in size to Basset Hounds. The oldest of the 142 deceased dogs in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 16.7 years.Leading causes of death in the 2004 UK Kennel Club survey were cancer (31%), old age (13%), GDV (bloat/torsion), (11%), and cardiac (8%).

Among 226 live Basset Hounds in the 2004 UKC survey, the most common health issues noted by owners were dermatologic (e.g., dermatitis), reproductive, musculoskeletal (e.g., arthritis and lameness), and gastrointestinal (e.g. GDV and colitis).Basset Hounds are also prone to epilepsy, glaucoma, luxating patella, thrombopathia, Von Willebrand disease, hypothyroidism, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia.

November 14, 2011

Turkey Balls

1 loaf uncooked bread dough or pizza dough
1/4 cup turkey broth
1-2 tsp. flour
3/4 cup cooked turkey, cut up small
1/2 cup cooked vegetables
1/4 tsp. garlic powder
1/4 grated cheese
1/4 cup sesame seeds

Roll out the dough and cut into 3 inches circles with cookie cutter.In a saucepan, combine the broth and flour, stirring until flour is dissolved and mixture thickens. Add the turkey, veggies, and garlic powder. Cook until mixture is heated through. Let cook a bit.
Spoon one to two teaspoonfuls of the turkey mixture onto each circle. Fold up the sides and pinch shut. Roll into a ball shape. Mix the cheese and sesame seeds in a small bowl. Roll or sprinkle each ball with the mixture. Arrange the balls on a cookies sheet. Cook in a preheated 375 degree oven for 10-15 minutes, until they are golden brown. Let cool.
Store in the refrigerator.


Liver Brownies

1 1/4 lbs Beef liver or chicken liver
2 Cups Wheat germ
2 Tbls Whole wheat flour
1 Cup Cooked barley
2 Whole eggs
3 Tbls Peanut butter
1 Clove garlic
1 Tbls Olive oil
1 tsp Salt (optional)

Pre heat oven to 350.
Liquify liver and garlic clove in a blender, when its smooth add eggs and peanut butter. Blend till smooth.
In separate mixing bowl combine wheat germ, whole wheat flour, and cooked Barley. Add processed liver mixture, olive oil and salt. Mix well.
Spread mixture in a greased 9x9 baking dish. Bake for 20 minutes or till done.
When cool cut into pieces that accommodate your doggies size.

Store in refrigerator or freezer.


Quick & Easy Liver Treats

1 lb cooked chicken livers (beef liver for chicken allergy dogs)
1 cup whole wheat flour
1 cup corn meal
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 Egg

Boil liver until cooked. Remove from water.  Put aside about 1/2 cup of liquid
Place chicken liver  liquid in blender,(ADD LIQUID A SMALL AMOUNT AT A TIME) mix till liquefied. Add egg, mix a minute more. Pour into bowl. Add flour, corn meal and garlic powder. Mix well.

Spray jelly roll pan with non stick cooking spray. Pour mixture into pan. Bake 15 minutes in 400 degree hot oven. Cut into small squares while still warm. Keep in freezer to prevent spoilage. Serve frozen or room temperature.


November 11, 2011

Dozer's Beef and Noodle Dinner

2 cups of macaroni
2 cup of mixed vegetables (peas, carrots, corn, etc.)
3/4 to 1 lb. of meat (ground beef or chicken)
3 cups water
1 1/2 tbs. corn starch
2 tbs. olive oil
1 clove of garlic (pressed)


Add meat and water to pot and boil bring to boil. Let simmer for 15 minutes and strain off meat. Save 1 3/4 cups of boiled stock. Now add water and boil macaroni until it begins to feel soft. Add frozen vegetables and let sit in water for a couple of minutes. Strain noodles/vegetables and turn heat to medium. Dissolve corn starch in 1/4 cup of cold water. Add meat, noodles, vegetable, olive oil, garlic and stock to pot. Stir until mixture begins to bubble. Turn heat to medium low and stir in water/corn starch mixture. Stir on element for a few minutes until it thickens (add more corn starch mixture if contents are still thin). Remove from element and let it cool to room temperature


November 10, 2011

Chicken Liver Chews

1 cup whole wheat flour
1 cup regular flour
1 cup cornmeal
2 tbsp vegetable oil
1 egg, beaten
1/2 cup chicken stock (LOW SODIUM)
1 tsp. garlic powder
1 cup cooked chicken livers (chopped)

Combine flour and cornmeal. In a separate bowl, add egg with oil, add broth and garlic; mix well. Add dry ingredients to bowl a little at a time, stirring well. Fold in chicken livers and mix well. Dough will be firm. Put dough on lightly floured surface and knead briefly. Roll out to 1/2" thick and cut into shapes. Place on greased cookie sheets. Bake 15 minutes or until firm. Store in the refrigerator, or freeze for future snacks.


Woof Woof Rice & Hamburger Dinner

2 cups rice
1/2 pound hamburger
1 tsp vegetable oil
1 clove garlic
1/2 cup carrots or broccoli or spinach
4 cups water

Put all ingredients into a large pot and bring to a boil. Turn the heat down to medium and cook until rice is tender. Cool and serve. Store leftovers in an air tight container and refrigerate.


Banana Bits for Dogs

2 1/4 cups whole wheat flour
1/2 cup nonfat dry milk
1 egg
1/3 cup mashed ripe banana
1/4 cup vegetable oil
1 beef buillion cube(LOW SODIUM) dissolved in 1/2 cup hot water
1 tbsp. brown sugar

Mix all ingredients until will blended. Knead for 2 minutes on a floured surface. Roll to 1/4 " thickness. Use a 2 1/2" bone shaped cookie cutter (or any one you prefer). Bake for 30 minutes in a 300 degrees oven on ungreased cookie pans.


Pumpkin Cookies

1 1/2 cups whole wheat flour
1/2 cup pumpkin, canned (pure pumpkin, NOT pie filling)
1 tablespoon brown sugar
1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
4 tablespoons Shortening
1 whole egg
1/2 cup buttermilk

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Combine flour, cinnamon and nutmeg and cut in shortening. Beat egg with milk and pumpkin and combine with flour, mixing well. Stir until soft dough forms. Drop by tablespoons onto ungreased cookie sheet and bake for 12 to 15 minutes. Let cool and serve.


November 7, 2011

Favorite Dog Magazines

October 26, 2011

Party Puppy Pizza - Dog Treat Recipes

1 cup water
1/4 cup vegetable oil
1 1/2 cups whole wheat flour
1 cup white flour
1 1/2 teaspoons dry yeast
1/2 cup cornmeal
2 tablespoons wheat bran
2 tablespoons organic soy flour
2 tablespoons Beet Powder  or 1 tablespoon red food coloring
2 tablespoons raw sugar
1 tablespoon Anise Seed

½ cup yellow royal icing or White Yogurt Coating
2 tablespoons soy or real bacon bits


  • Put all the ingredients (except the icing) into your bread maker in the order suggested by the manufacturer.
  • Set the bread maker for the dough cycle.
  • When the dough is ready, remove it and divide it into 3 or 4 equal balls.
  • Roll each ball into a sheet that is about 1/4” thick.
  • Using a circle cookie cutter or a drinking glass, cut your circles and place them on a lightly greased baking sheet.
  • Cover the pizza crusts with a clean dish towel and let them rise in a warm place, away from drafts, for an hour.
  • Bake the pizza crusts for 45-60 minutes at 300 degrees F. Check them after 30 minutes to make sure that they don't get too dark.
  • Turn off the oven and let the pizza crusts finish drying in the oven overnight. They will be dry and crisp when they are completely dry.
  • If you make the icing yourself, you can color it yellow (like cheese) with tumeric. Add a little at a time until you get the color that you want.
  • Sprinkle soy bacon bits on top for the pizza topping. If you prefer, you can use real bacon bits instead.

Pets and Tomatoes
At times, I have made Puppy Pizzas gourmet dog treats using tomato paste for the sauce and real mozzarella cheese for the cheese.

If you do this, make sure that you refrigerate or freeze the pizzas, as they will start to get moldy in a few days if stored at room temperature. This is true for many gourmet dog treats that do not have preservatives!

IMPORTANT NOTE: NEVER! EVER! give tomato products to a cat or kitten! While tomatoes are just fine for a dog, they can be deadly for a cat.

Dog Collars and their Appropriate uses - The Dog Nanny

Marcia Murray-Stoof CPDT,CCB

Collars should be introduced to your puppy right away. Do not be concerned if he initially scratches at it or shakes his head. Though he may resist wearing a collar, soon he will not even notice it is on. There are four basic types of collars: buckle collars, choke collars, halter collars, and prong collars. Buckle collars are the only collars recommended for puppies younger than four months of age, and the only collar that is safe to leave on any dog while unsupervised. Stronger dogs over four months old that pull hard on leads may need a choke collar, or in extreme cases, a prong collar...still, only when on a lead. Better yet, use a halter-type collar which gives you much more control and is less likely to irritate or damage the throat and neck area.

Your puppy will accept a lead (leash) much more readily if you introduce it gradually. Under your supervision, begin by letting your puppy drag the lead around the yard to get him used to the feel of minor pressure on his neck. As he walks around, follow him, then gently pick up the lead and walk with him. Keep the lead held high and speak in a friendly, encouraging manner as you walk.

At this early stage, do not look for the disciplined precision of a formal heel. Your goal is simply to get your pup comfortable with the leash and to walk with you without resistance. If he starts to pull out in front, gently reverse your direction and make a noise to distract your pup. No verbal commands should be used during this introduction. You are simply helping your puppy become accustomed to the weight and feel of the lead.

Taking the time to properly introduce your puppy to the collar and lead sets the stage for teaching your puppy the basic elements of obedience. The goal is to have your puppy accept a collar and lead calmly, without resisting.

For puppies, collars and leads with lighter hardware (buckles, snaps, and rings) are best. When grown, you can replace with heavy-duty hardware if appropriate for your breed. Be sure to check your puppy's collar size frequently and loosen it as your puppy's neck grows.

This detailed overview of the different types and designs of collars, leads, and leashes will help you choose the right style and material for your particular dog.

Different Types of Collars

Cotton Web: Cotton web collars are a lightweight, inexpensive choice used primarily for puppies in training. Not as strong as other choices, they tend to show wear more quickly than other material.

Nylon: Nylon collars are available in single-ply or double-ply thickness in a wide choice of colors. An excellent choice for most dogs, they are strong and have a long life. Choose a wider width and thicker styles for larger, stronger dogs.

Leather: Leather collars are very strong, attractive, and last many years. Leather retains its good looks and even improves with age.

Center Cord: The nylon cord is wrapped in either rolled leather or fabric. Also used in retractable leads with excellent strength characteristics.

Hardware: Solid brass is very strong and retains its attractive gold finish forever. Nickel-plated steel are for pet owners who prefer silver color, or choose brass plated. Swivel snap clasps on leads and turn with pets to reduce tangling. Collars -- Choose Traditional Buckle Collars with D-Ring in front, which allows hardware to hang freely under neck, or O-Ring in back for quick attachment. Lightweight yet strong, Quick-Klip Collars offer easy on/off convenience for pet owners who frequently take collars on and off.

Leads (Leashes)
All pet owners should have a 6-foot lead for training and restraining that matches collar style. Almost all proper training is centered around having control of your dog. Leads are the only way to maintain in-close control.

Retractable Leads: are an excellent product for play time or come training as they allow up to 26 feet of freedom to roam and investigate smells, yet still keep the owner in control. Simple, push-button control lets you extend distance, lock desired length in place, and rewind slack.

There are many styles of collars to choose from depending on your dog's size and disposition, and your training need. For the majority of dogs, a traditional nylon or leather collar is sufficient. Other collars for specific situations are described below. This discussion does not include remote training collars.

Traditional Collars: Traditional collars are available in a variety of styles, colors, and widths and should ride high on your pet's neck, not loose so that it slides down near the top of his shoulder blades. Use a tape measure to measure your pet's neck, then add on two inches.

Collars should be snug with enough room to fit two fingers between your dog's neck and his collar. For your dog's safety, the collar should not be loose enough to slip over the pet's head. In addition to the risk of losing a pet that gets away, loose collars are more easily snagged on objects, and many pets die every year from accidental hanging. For this reason, collars should not be worn in wire cages. Collars should also not be so tight as to restrict breathing or cause coughing. Check collar size frequently on growing puppies.
Choose collar and lead width with hardware that matches pet's size. Smaller, lightweight choices are for small dogs and puppies, and wider, more durable styles are for bigger, stronger pets.

Every collar you own should have a current name tag attached to it at all times.

Harnesses: Harnesses, which go around the neck and around the shoulders behind the front legs, are recommended for dogs who have upper respiratory disease or diseases of the throat or trachea, such as a collapsed trachea. If a dog with an incorrectly fitted collar pulls on the leash, it places pressure on the throat and trachea, causing irritation and coughing. Harnesses relieve that pressure. However as all dogs pull with their chest, harness allow the dog to pull easily.

Martingale Collar: A martingale collar is made with two loops. The large loop is placed around the dogs neck and adjusted to fit loosely. The leash is then clipped to the D ring on the small loop. When the dog tries to pull their head out of the collar, the tension on the leash pulls the small loop taunt, which makes the large loop smaller and tighter on the neck-- preventing escape. When adjusted properly the dog is never choked, but the collar stays snug around the dog's neck (just behind the ears) until the pressure is released.

Halter-type Collars: will give you the best control over your dog. They give you control of your dog's head and when you have control of the dog's head, you have control of the dog. There are several brands of these halter-type collars including Halti collar and Gentle Leader. These collars look more like a horse's halter, with a band going around the back of the head, and another around the nose. The leash snaps onto the collar under the chin. When you pull on the leash, the dog's head will either be pulled down or to the side - this makes it virtually impossible for the dog to move ahead or pull you forward.

Incorrect use of this type of collar can cause, whip lash type injuries and in some cases have actually broken a dogs neck. Proper fitting and handling is required for these type of collars. Some people are hesitant to use the collar since they feel it looks more like a muzzle than a collar.

Chain-slip Collars: Chain-slip collars, also called check chain or 'choke collars,' provide effective training and retraining tools when used correctly and on appropriate dogs. These collars are most often used for dogs that are strong-willed, pull when on a lead, or those that do not respond to training when wearing traditional collars.

If you plan to use a choke collar on your dog, have a trainer show you how to use it correctly. Correct usage involves a quick 'tug-and-release' action (as opposed to a steady pulling) that tells the pet a different behaviour is desired. These collars should only be worn during training sessions, never in a crate, and avoided in pets with delicate tracheas, such as Yorkshire Terriers.

For correct sizing, measure your pet's neck and add half that measure again". There is a right and wrong way to put a slip collar on a dog. To correctly place a collar on a dog, the top ring on a properly-looped collar forms a letter P when you stand in front of the dog and pull it snug. If it forms the number 9, it is on backward and may not release immediately as designed, which may cause discomfort or gagging.

Pronged Collars: Pronged Collars, also called pinch collars, contain blunt prongs that protrude inward from the links. Designed for only the most stubborn pullers, they are temporary training tools used to change behaviour on dogs that do not respond to any other collar. Halter-type collars give you more control and are much less likely to harm your dog.

We have found that owners who know how to correctly train dogs rarely need these types of collars. Rather, they learned they were training their pet incorrectly, and were able to successfully train their dog using other collars after learning proper methods.


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